The paddle was driven by weights, and the temperature of the water was observed by thermometers which could indicate 2 kuth of a degree Fahrenheit.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
The oil-cup is supported in a bath or heating-vessel, consisting of two flat-bottomed copper cylinders, to contain water, heated by a spirit lamp, and provided with an air-space between the water-vessel and the oil-cup. Thermometers are placed in both oil-cup and waterbath, the temperature of the latter being raised to 130° at the commencement of the test, while the oil is put in at about 60° F.
The instruments - current-meters, sounding apparatus, water-collecting bottles, thermometers, hydrometers, etc. - were all elaborated and improved.
Special glasses for thermometers, and other special glasses.
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