In that country the Church almost completely lost her possessions; in Germany they were at least considerably curtailed; in both the hierarchical organization was shattered, while the Catholic laity surveyed the catastrophe in complete passivity.
The rivalry between the east and west side towns was intense, the plats were so surveyed that the streets did not meet at the river, and there were bitter quarrels over the building of bridges.
In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler.
The boundary between North Carolina and Tennessee was surveyed in 1 799 and 1821.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.