The ratio of the residual magnetization to its previous maximum value measures the retentiveness, or retentivity, of the metal.'
A metal which has great retentiveness may at the same time have small coercive force, and it is the latter quality which is of chief importance in permanent magnets.
The small magnet may be a sphere rigidly magnetized in the direction of Ho; if this is replaced by an isotropic sphere inductively magnetized by the field, then, for a displacement so small that the magnetization of the sphere may be regarded as unchanged, we shall have dW = - vIdHo = v I+-, whence W = - 2 I + H2 ° (37) The mechanical force acting on the sphere in the direction of displacement x is 1 Hopkinson specified the retentiveness by the numerical value of the " residual induction " (=47rI).
On the other hand, the form of the third curve, with its large intercepts on the axes of H and B, denotes that the specimen to which it relates possesses both retentiveness and coercive force in a high degree; such a metal would be chosen for making good permanent magnets.
Ewing has also examined the effects produced by longitudinal compression upon the susceptibility and retentiveness of nickel, and found, as was to be expected, that both were greatly increased by pressure.