The terms of agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts where mezzadria prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous to the laborers, who suffer from the obligation to provide guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and for the division of products.
They perform a useful function in protecting their clients from the cruel usury which prevails, especially in the south.
In the movement of shipping, trade with foreign countries prevails (especially as regards arrivals) over trade between Italian ports.
In the Balkan States, the system - inherited from Byzantine and Turkish times - of ecclesiastical jurisdictions prevails, except that they are now autocephalous,and independent of the patriarch of Constantinople.
Still more diversity of opinion prevails as to the southern gold-exporting port of Ophir, which some scholars place in Arabia, others at one or another point on the east coast of Africa.