Its origin dates back to 747, when the city of Mainz was made the seat of an archbishop, and a succession of able and ambitious prelates, obtaining lands and privileges from emperors and others, made of the district under their rule a strong and vigorous state.
His election was contrary to the wishes both of the clergy and of the people, and the consecration ceremony was performed by certain prelates belonging to the court.
John was forced to withdraw to Burgundy (August 1413), and the university of Paris and John Gerson once more censured Petit's propositions, which, but for the lavish bribes of money and wines offered by John to the prelates, would have been solemnly condemned at the council of Constance.
Gregory refused, but after consulting a committee of theologians who declared him to be a heretic, the council promoted by Cardinal Cossa and other independent prelates met at Pisa.
The lower edge and the sleeves are usually garnished with lace, lined with violet or red silk in the case of prelates, or - more rarely - with embroidered borders.