See also logic;numbers

algebra
the branch of mathematics that treats the representation and manip-ulation of relationships among numbers, values, vectors, etc.

**—algebraic**,

adj.
algorism
**1.** the Arabic system of numbering.

**2.** the method of computation with the Arabic flgures 1 through 9, plus the zero; arithmetic.

**3.** the rule for solving a specific kind of arithmetic problem, as finding an average; algorithm.

**—algorist**,

n. **—algorismic**,

adj.
algorithm
any methodology for solving a certain kind of problem.

**analogism**
the construction of a proportion.

biometrics
**1.** the calculation of the probable extent of human lifespans.

**2.** the application to biology of mathematical and statistical theory and methods.

**—biometric, biometrical,** adj.
calculus
a branch of mathematics that treats the measurement of changing quantities, determining rates of change (differential calculus) and quantities under changing conditions (integral calculus).

geodesy
the branch of applied mathematics that studies the measurement and shape and area of large tracts, the exact position of geographical points, and the curvature, shape, and dimensions of the earth. Also called

**geodetics**.

**—geodesist**,

n. **—geodetic, geodetical**,

adj.
geometry
the branch of mathematics that treats the measurement, relationship, and properties of points, lines, angles, and flgures in space.

**—geometer, geometrician**,

n. **—geometric, geometrical**,

adj.
**isoperimetry**
the study of flgures that have perimeters of equal length.

**—isoperimetrical, isoperimetral**,

adj.
**logarithmomancy**
a form of divination involving logarithms.

logistic
Rare. the art or science of calculation or arithmetic.

mathematics
the systematic study of magnitude, quantitites, and their relationships as expressed symbolically in the form of numerals and forms.

**—mathematician**,

n. **—mathematic, mathematical**,

adj.
metamathematics
the logical analysis of the fundamental concepts of mathematics, as function, number, etc.

**—metamathematician**,

n. **—metamathematical**,

adj.
**orthogonality**
the state or quality of being right-angled or perpendicular.

**—orthogonal**,

adj.
parallelism
the quality of being parallel.

**philomathy**
**1.** Rare. a love of learning.

**2.** a love of mathematics.

**—philomath**,

n. **—philomathic, philomathical, philomathean**,

adj.
planimetry
the geometry and measurement of plane surfaces.

**—planimeter**,

n. **—planimetric, planimetrical**,

adj.
**polynomialism**
a mathematical expression having the quality of two or more terms.

porism
Rare. a kind of geometrical proposition of ancient Greek mathematics arising during the investigation of some other proposition either as a corollary or as a condition that will render a certain problem indeterminate.

**—porismatic**,

adj.

Pythagoreanism
the doctrines and theories of Pythagoras, ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician, and the Pythagoreans, especially number relationships in music theory, acoustics, astronomy, and geometry (the Pythagorean theorem for right triangles), a belief in metempsychosis, and mysticism based on numbers.

**—Pythagorean**,

n., adj. **—Pythagorist**,

n.
quadratics
the branch of algebra that deals with equations containing variables of the second power, i.e. squared, but no higher.

**spheroidicity**
the state of having a roughly spherical shape. Also called

**spheroidism**, spheroidity.

**statistology**
Rare. a treatise on statistics.

**theorematist**
a person who discovers or formulates a mathematical theorem.

**—theorematic**,

adj.
topology
a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of geometrical forms that remain invariant under certain transformations, as bending or stretching.

**—topologist**,

n. **—topologic, topological**,

adj.
trigonometry
the branch of mathematics that treats the measurement of and relationships between the sides and angles of plane triangles and the solid figures derived from them.

**—trigonometric, trigonometrical**,

adj.