The two main functions of the treasury department are the administration of the government revenues and expenditures, and of the banking and currency laws.
In each county a convention, composed of representatives from the towns, meets every two years to levy taxes and to authorize expenditures for grounds and buildings whenever more than one thousand dollars are required.
In many cases, as at Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Manaos, the cost and maintenance of the new port-works are met by an additional tax on merchandise, though the immediate expenditures are met by advances from the national treasury, and at Rio de Janeiro by a foreign loan.
In 1824 the Real del Monte mines were sold to an English company and became the centre of a remarkable mining speculation - the company ruining itself with lavish expenditures and discontinuing work in 1848.
General average arises when sacrifices have been made, or expenditures incurred, for the preservation of the ship, cargo and freight, from some peril of the sea or from its effects.