In the Septuagint it is called Opiivoc, " Funeral-songs " or " Dirges," the usual rendering of Heb.
But it was rather in the chants and litanies of the ancient religion, such as those of the Salii and the Fratres Arvales, and the dirges for the dead (neniae), and in certain extemporaneous effusions, that some germs of a native poetry might have been detected; and finally in the use of Saturnian verse, a metre of pure native origin, which by its rapid and lively movement gave expression to the vivacity and quick apprehension of the Italian race.
Name-songs, written at the birth of a chief, gave his genealogy and the deeds of his ancestors; dirges and love-songs were common.
Some persons also attribute to him the following: Daughters of Proetus, Hopes, Hymns, Heroines, Dirges, Lyrics, Elegies, Iambics, Epigrams."
(e) The Dirges and Battle Songs - such as that on Hafur-firth Battle Hrafnsmal, by Thiodolf of Hvin orThorbjorn Hornklofi, shortly after 870; Eirik's Dirge (Eiriksmdl) between 950 and 969; the DartLay on Clontarf Battle (1014); Biarka-mal (fragments of which we have, and paraphrase of more is found in Hrolf Kraki's Saga and in Saxo).