See also logic; philosophy; rhetoric and rhetorical devices.
a statement that is nonsensical or illogical.
a statement open to more than one interpretation; an ambiguity.
an agreement or correspondence in particular features between things otherwise dissimilar; the inference that if two things agree with each other in one or more respects, they will probably agree in yet other respects. —analogous, adj.
a method of argument in which the proposition to be established is emphasized through the disproving of its contradiction; reductio ad absurdum.
a person who defends, in speech or writing, a faith, doctrine, idea, or action.
reasoning or arguing in a circle.
the belief in and use of conciliation in an argument. —conhciliationist, n. — conciliatory, adj.
controversy or argument. —disceptator, n.
a controversial debate or discussion; a dispute. See also speech
. —disputant, n.
the act of dissenting or disagreeing. —dissenter, n.
a difference of opinion.
a stubborn attachment to a theory or doctrine without regard to its practicability. Also spelled doctrinairism
. —doctrinaire, n., adj.
a statement of a point of view as if it were an established fact.
the use of a system of ideas based upon insufficiently examined premises. —dogmatist, n.
a method of induction in which enumeration of particulars leads to the inferred generalization. —epagogic, adj.
a syllogism whose premises are the conclusion of a preceding syllogism.
the practice or habit of quibbling and wrangling; sophistical reasoning. —ergotize, v.
a participant in an argument or controversy.
the art of disputation. —eristic, eristical, adj.
the art and study of argumentation and formal debate. —forensic, adj.
a method of argument in which postulates or assumptions are made that remain to be proven or that lead the arguers to discover the proofs themselves. —heuristic, adj.
a principle or proposition that is assumed for the sake of argument or that is taken for granted to proceed to the proof of the point in question.
a system or theory created to account for something that is not understood. —hypothesist, hypothetist,
a person who is pedantic in argument.
a person whose logic is less valid than he thinks.
Euclid of Megara’s Socratic school of philosophy, known for the use of logical paradox and near-specious subtleties.
a hatred of argument, debate, or reasoning. —misologist, n.
the laws of logic; the science of the intellect. —noetic, adj.
the use of argument intended to prevent enlightenment or to hinder the process of knowledge and wisdom. Also spelled obscuranticism
. —obscurantist, n.
—obscurant, obscurantic, adj.
deliberate interference with the progress of an argument. —obstructionist, n.
the proposing of paradoxical opinions; speaking in paradoxes. —paradoxer, n.
a method or process of reasoning which contradicts logical rules or formulas, especially the use of a faulty syllogism (the formal fallacy). —paralogist, n
. —paralogistic, adj.
related to a love of controversy and argument. —philopolemist, n.
one who uses Talmudic dialectic; a subtle reasoner. —pilpulistic, adj.
a skilled debater in speech or writing. —polemical, adj.
the art of dispute or argument. —polemic, n., adj.
—polemically, n., adv.
a series of syllogisms set up systematically.
anticipating an opponent’s argument and answering it before it can be made. See also future
. —proleptic, adj.
a false syllogism whose conclusion does not follow from its premises.
a nice or fine point, as in argument; a subtlety. —quodlibetal, adj.
a person who likes to talk about or dispute fine points or quodlibets.
, the act or process of refuting or disproving. —redargutory, adj.
a person who decides a matter when the parties to it are in conflict; an umpire or judge.
the tendency to concentrate on a single part of an argument and to ignore or exclude all complicating factors. —simplistic, adj.
a specious argument for displaying ingenuity in reasoning or for deceiving someone.
any false argument or fallacy. —sophister, n.
1. Ancient Greece.
a teacher of rhetoric, philosophy, etc; hence, a learned person.
one who is given to the specious arguments often used by the sophists.
the teachings and ways of teaching of the Greek sophists.
specious or fallacious reasoning, as was sometimes used by the sophists.
a form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them. See also logic
. —syllogistic, adj.
the state or quality of being forceful, incisive, or penetrating, as in words or an argument. —trenchant, adj.
hair-splitting, as in argument; the making of overly fine points.