He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the necessity of the hour.
In this way he became strong enough to deal with the apostates of Judaea.
After the death of Balas he laid siege to the Akra; and " the apostates, who hated their own nation," appealed to Demetrius.
The penalty of excommunication ipso facto is only maintained for reading books written by heretics or apostates in defence of heresy, or books condemned by name under pain of excommunication by pontifical letters (not by decrees of the Index).
The death of Judas at Elasa left the field open to the apostates, and his followers were reduced to the level of roving brigands.
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