In the southern part of the colony are small sultanates, such as those of Aussa and Raheita, which are under Italian protection.
When the great Mahommedan sultanates had become too much occupied in internecine wars to maintain order in the distant Hejaz, those branches of the Hassanids which from the beginning of Islam had retained rural property in Arabia usurped power in the holy cities and the adjacent Bedouin territories.
The third or central group of Sudanese states is formed of the sultanates of Bagirmi with Kanem and Wadai.
All the other Fula emirs were dependent on these two sultanates.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.