For a long period it was included in the sultanate of Tlemcen, and in the 16th century fell to the Turks.
Between the mainland dependency of the RiouwLingga residency and the residency of Palembang lies Jambi, an extensive sultanate, of which a portion belongs to the residency of Palembang as a protectorate, the sultan having in his capital (also called Jambi) a Dutch " comptroller," who represents the resident of Palembang; another portion is claimed by a quasi-independent sultan who reigns in the interior.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid.