Mr Chamberlain himself had proposed only to take it off as regards colonial, and not foreign corn, - thus inaugurating a preferential system.
He saw the true field for commercial expansion within the Empire, and therefore advocated preferential duties.
At the peace in 1815, however, only four were spared, namely, Frankfort, Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, these being practically the only ones still in a sufficiently flourishing and economically independent position to warrant such preferential treatment.
In 1909 a direct primary elections law was passed which required a majority of all votes to nominate, and, to make a majority possible, provided for preferential (or second-choice) voting, such votes to be canvassed and added to the first-choice vote for each candidate if there be no majority by the first-choice vote.
Lastly, there is a class of difficulties which might arise from preferential treatment of trade from different countries.