A country of western Europe. It was settled by the Franks after the retreat of the Romans, who had conquered Celtic Gaul in 58–51 bc . Though Charlemagne incorporated it into his Empire of the West after ad 800, France was eventually split into numerous fiefdoms and principalities, many of which were not incorporated into the royal domain until the time of Louis XI (reigned 1461–1483). Widespread poverty and discontent led to the French Revolution (1789) and the end of the monarchy. The First Republic (1792–1804) was followed by the First Empire (1804–1815) under Napoleon I, a period of constitutional monarchy (1814–1848), and a succession of republics broken by the Second Empire (1852–1870) under Napoleon III. Much of France was occupied by Germany in World War II. Paris is the capital and the largest city.