Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.
If the bedding be traced, either in the slates or in the other rocks which accompany them, flexures will be frequently observed (the folding often being of an isoclinal type), while reversed faulting, or thrusting, is usually also conspicuous.
The alimentary canal keeps very nearly to the median vertical plane whilst exhibiting a number of flexures and loopings in this plane.