Since the close of the 10th century diocesan councils in France had been busily acting as legislatures, and enacting "forms of peace" for the maintenance of God's Peace or Truce (Pax Dei or Treuga Dei).
C. 1., enacting even more severe penalties, had never been repealed, and was sometimes put in force against Friends.
C. 3), enacting fines against those who refused to find a man for the militia, was occasionally put in force.
They had in 1 347 succeeded in enacting a very stringent law against all who were in any way tainted with Ghibellinism,which,they themselves being above suspicion in that connexion, enabled them to drive from office many members of the popolo minuto.
His wisdom is shown by the prudent measures which he took by enacting the Nizam-ijedid, or new regulations for the improvement of the condition of the Christian rayas, and for affording them security for life and property; a conciliatory attitude which at once bore fruit in Greece, where the people abandoned the Venetian cause and returned to their allegiance to the Porte.