Horae Paulinae - mutual confirmations of Acts and Epistles; better, though one-sided.
Grants and confirmations were made from the reign of Henry III.
The Bavarian clergy invited Bishop Loos of the Jansenist Church in Holland, which for more than 150 years had existed independent of the Papacy and had adopted the name of "Old Catholic," to hold confirmations in Bavaria.
These confirmations, as they are called, should be carefully recorded in all critical texts, inasmuch as they constitute the most striking justification of the critical method.
The visible symptom of this decadence of the archiepiscopal power was the growing frequency during the Hildebrandine conflict of episcopal confirmations and consecrations made by the popes themselves or their legates.