Derivation is effected by infixes, prefixes, affixes and reduplication.
The affixes -ous and sub- refer to the compounds containing more of the positive element, -ic and per- to those containing less.
The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.
The derivational affixes stand for the first degree of the scale, the inflectional affixes stand for the second degree.
The name is moreover applied with various affixes to several other totally different plants.