Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
Peopled entirely by merchants and tradesmen, and is wholly indebted for its present size and importance to its commercial prosperity.
At the beginning of the 19th century it had become common for the tradesmen of the city to live away from their businesses, but it was only about the middle of the 19th century that it became at all usual for those in the West End to do the same.
Like his father, he looked for support to the popular party, to the tradesmen, particularly the powerful gild of the butchers, and also to the university of Paris.
The original twenty proprietors, however, endeavoured to exclude the tradesmen from any voice in the government, and this caused strife.