The presumption is either that d 2 V/dh 2 near the ground is much larger numerically than Gerdien supposes, or else that the ordinary instruments for measuring ionization fail to catch some species of Ion Whose Charge Is Preponderatingly Negative.
He supposes the field near the earth to be ioo volts per metre, or 1/300 electrostatic units.
As to the convection current, Gerdien supposes-as in § 25-p =2-7 X 10° electrostatic units, and on fine days puts the average velocity of rising air currents at 10 cm.
Wilson supposes that by the fall to the ground of a preponderance of negatively charged rain the air above the shower has a higher positive potential than elsewhere at the same level, thus leading to large conduction currents laterally in the highly conducting upper layers.
It banished the spirits and genii, to which even Kepler had assigned the guardianship of the planetary movements; and, if it supposes the globular particles of the envelope to be the active force in carrying the earth round the sun, we may remember that Newton himself assumed an aether for somewhat similar purposes.
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