In the extreme west the salinity of the surface water is about 36 3 per mille, and it increases eastwards to 37 6 east of Sardinia and 39 0 and upwards in the Levant.
Observations of salinity in the depths of the western Mediterranean are very deficient, but the average is probably between 38 o and 38 5.
Lat., and another of almost equal salinity extending eastwards from the coast of South America in 10 to 20° S.
In the equatorial region between these belts the salinity is markedly less, especially in the eastern part.
In all of these water of relatively high salinity usually appears for a long distance towards the north on the eastern side of the channel, while on the western side the water is comparatively fresh; but great variations occur at different seasons and in different years.
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