Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
The internal friction or viscosity of seawater has also been shown by E.
Considerable alarm was created about the year 1887 by the failure of two or three large structures of Portland cement concrete exposed to seawater, both in England and other countries.
In his researches on the bleaching compounds of chlorine he was the first to advance the view that bleaching-powder is a double compound of calcium chloride and hypochlorite; and he devoted much time to the problem of economically obtaining soda and potash from seawater, though here his efforts were nullified by the discovery of the much richer sources of supply afforded by the Stassfurt deposits.
In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.