Protestants number some 65,000, of whom half are Italian and half foreign.
It suffered much during the Wars of Religion, especially in 1568 after its capture by the Protestants under Coligny.
At the Worms conference (1540) between Catholics and Protestants he was the sole representative of the Swiss.
Granted to the Bohemian Protestants, in 1609, the "Majestatsbrief," or patent of equal rights, the revocation of which helped to precipitate the Thirty Years' War.
He gave its Church a trained ministry, its homes an educated people who could give a reason for their faith, and the whole city an heroic soul which enabled the little town to stand forth as the citadel and city of refuge for the oppressed Protestants of Europe."