In the two former divisions the influence of wealth and birth predominated; the hillmen were poorly housed, poorly clad and unable to make use of the privileges which Solon had given them.'
These last already appear in miniatures of the 9th century; from the II th onwards they predominated; and in the 13th century they ousted all other forms. Originally plain, the crook was from the lath century onwards often made in the form of a snake (5), which in richer staves encircled the Lamb of God or the representation of a figure.
In that rough age crimes of violence predominated, and the king's justiciars regularly perambulated the land in search of offenders, and decimated every village which refused to surrender fugitive criminals.
After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.
The glass industry of the Low Countries was chiefly influenced by Italy and Spain, whereas German influence and technique predominated in the United Provinces.