In 1075 he caused the investiture of ecclesiastica dignitaries by secular potentates of any degree to be condemned These two reforms, striking at the most cherished privileges ant most deeply-rooted self-indulgences of the aristocratic caste ii Europe, inflamed the bitterest hostility.
The respective relations of pope and emperor, ill-defined in the compact between Charles the Great and Leo III., were brought in question, and Che two chief potentates -of Christendom, no longer tacitly concordant, stood against each other in irreconcilable rivalry.
In the pontificate of Clement XIII they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of Europe.
His proposal to reinstate Leopold and the pope with Piedmontese arms, so as to avoid Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have forfeited its prestige throughout Italy.
They liked to consider themselves as the Lord's anointed, placed high above all ordinary mortals even of the most exalted rank; and when Constantinople fell into the hands of the infidel they began to imagine that, as the most powerful potentates of the Eastern Orthodox world they were the protectors of the Orthodox faith and the political heirs of the East Roman emperors.
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