On some of these buildings are still seen the arms of the popes and of some of the royal and noble houses of Europe.
Already at the council of Constance attempts had been made to reduce the excessive papal reservations and taxes in the matter of benefices, privileges which had been established under the Avignon popes and during the Great Schism; for example, Martin V.
On various occasions the popes found asylum within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of the conclaves which elected Honorius II.
The virtual outcome of the contest carried on by Rome since the year 726 with Byzantium and Pavia was to place the popes in the position held by the Greek exarch, and to confirm the limitation of the Lombard kingdom.
These German popes were short-lived and inefficient.