On some of these buildings are still seen the arms of the popes and of some of the royal and noble houses of Europe.
On various occasions the popes found asylum within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of the conclaves which elected Honorius II.
The virtual outcome of the contest carried on by Rome since the year 726 with Byzantium and Pavia was to place the popes in the position held by the Greek exarch, and to confirm the limitation of the Lombard kingdom.
These German popes were short-lived and inefficient.
That cession, renewed after the death of Gregory to his successors, conferred upon the popes indefinite rights, of which they afterwards availed themselves in the consolidation of their temporal power.