Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.
Its object was to resist the anti-clerical tendencies of the Liberals, and for this purpose it appealed to the " nationalities " against the dominant Magyar parties, the due enforcement of the Law of Equal Rights of Nationalities (1868) forming a main item of its programme.
Mingling with Siamese and Chinese, who form the major part, may be seen persons of almost every race to be found between Bombay and Japan, while Europeans of different nationalities number over 1000.
Were the first who thought it desirable to form these nationalities into a uniform nation coextensive with the state.
The establishment in Austria of universal suffrage in 1907 had as its aim the creation, in the place of the old Parliament, which was crippled by the strife of nationalities, of a Chamber in which social and economic interests should prevail over national ones.