Their numbers were increased by malcontents from Norway, who resented Harald's claim of rights of taxation over lands which the possessors appear to have previously held in absolute ownership. At last Harald was forced to make an expedition to the west to clear the islands and Scottish mainland of Vikings.
He was successful, and by the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he was able to secure the support of the "Malcontents," as the Catholic nobles of the south were styled, to the royal cause.
Of Bohemia, affected to believe that Stephen was too great a friend of the Kumanians to be a true Catholic. Ottakar endeavoured, with the aid of the Magyar malcontents, to conquer the western provinces of Hungary, but after some successes was utterly routed by Stephen in 1271 near Mosony, and by the peace of Pressburg, the same year, relinquished all his conquests.
The successful issue of the Moscow riots was the occasion of disquieting disturbances all over the tsardom culminating in dangerous rebellions at Pskov and Great Novgorod, with which the government was so unable to cope that they surrendered, practically granting the malcontents their own terms. One man only had displayed equal tact and courage at Great Novgorod, the metropolitan Nikon, who in consequence became in 1651 the tsar's chief minister.
On the 19th a decree of the Convention offered the aid of France to all nations which were striving after freedom - in other words, to the malcontents in every neighbouring state.