Tasmania is the largest producer of tin in Australasia, and a very large proportion of the tin hitherto produced has been obtained from alluvial deposits, the lodes, except at Mount Bischoff, having, comparatively speaking, been neglected.
In mineral veins and lodes crystallized quartz is usually the most abundant gangue mineral; the crystals are often arranged perpendicular to the walls of the lode, giving rise to a "comby" structure.
It occurs in lodes and as stream-tin, and is worked by Chinese in large numbers who inhabit villages of their own.
The copper lodes of New South Wales contain ores of a much higher grade than those of many well-known mines .worked at a profit in other parts of the world, and, with a fair price for copper, the production largely increases.
The second half of the 19th century witnessed several great finds; first, of gold placers on the lower Gila and Colorado (1858-1869); later, of lodes at Tombstone, which flourished from 1879-1886, then decayed, but in 1905 had again become the centre of important mining interests; and still later the development of copper mines at Jerome and around Bisbee.