The Papacy, foreseeing the breach with the emperor over investitures, now resolved to recognize the Normans and secure them as allies.
Then, after William had reluctantly yielded on this point, the far more important question of lay investitures cropped up. The council of Clermont (Nov.
Throughout the time of Henrys Norman war, he was engaged in a tiresome controversy with the primate on the question of lay investitures, the continuation of the struggle which Henrys had begun in his brothers reign.
During the investitures dispute Giffard was on friendly terms with Anselm, and drew upon himself a sentence of banishment through declining to accept consecration from the archbishop of York (1103).
The war of investitures that followed was the opening of the tremendous struggle between the Empire and the Papacy, which is the ceiitral fact of medieval history and The which, after two centuries of conflict, ended in the struggle exhaustion of both powers.