In the mountainous region on the upper waters of the Sangarius, between Kutaiah Eski Shehr and Afium (Afiom) Kara Hissar, there exist numerous monuments of great antiquity, showing a style of marked individuality, and implying a high degree of artistic skill among the people who produced them.
In 1055, as implying a claim to the headship of Christendom, and as a usurpation on the Holy Roman Empire.
In this article the Renaissance will be considered as implying a comprehensive movement of the European intellect and will Method toward self-emancipation, toward reassertion of the natural rights of the reason and the senses, toward the conquest of this planet as a place of human occupation, and toward the formation of regulative theories both for states and individuals differing from those of medieval times.
As regards the first object the mere fact of joining the society and becoming an "initiated fellow" was supposed to involve a certain kind of intellectual and social brotherhood, though not implying anything in the nature of an economic union.
He rose to be one of the three (spectabiles) "chartularii," a position implying some literary attainment, and involving the custody of the archives of the household.