The attacking troops, both gunners and infantry, found their task unexpectedly lightened by the absence of a heavy return fire upon their batteries, trenches, and zones of concentration.
The Egyptian gunners had been little trained, and many of them had never once practised with rifled ordnance.
The artillery was very numerous, but skilled gunners were not available in any great strength and ammunition was scarce.
He is said to have induced his brother to employ a Parsee to purchase artillery and small arms from the Bombay government, and to enrol some thirty sailors of different European nations as gunners, and is thus credited with having been "the first Indian who formed a corps of sepoys armed with firelocks and bayonets, and who had a train of artillery served by Europeans."
The artillery is composed of European gunners, with native riders, while the cavalry are Europeans and natives.