Fragilis, with some half-score varieties, is almost exclusively used by market gardeners for bunching greens, turnips and other produce.
The market-gardeners of Paris and its vicinity have a high reputation for skill in the forcing of early vegetables under glass.
The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and Shakespeare was, as in Italy, Dianthus Caryophyllus; that of later writers and of gardeners, Matthiola.
The minute insects included in it, which haunt blossoms and leaves, are fairly well known to gardeners by the name Thrips, a generic term used by Linnaeus for the four species of the group which he had examined and relegated to the order Hemiptera.
AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.