In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
His extant works are his Panegyrics on different emperors (in which he draws largely upon Statius, Ausonius and Claudian); and nine books of Letters and Poems, whose chief value consists in the light they shed on the political and literary history of the 5th century.
His sovereignty was endangered by Bardanes, one of his ablest generals, who revolted and received support from other commanders, notably the later emperors Leo the Armenian and Michael the Amorian.
LABARUM, the sacred military standard of the early Christian Roman emperors, first adopted by Constantine the Great after his miraculous vision in 312, although, according to Gibbon, he did not exhibit it to the army till 323.
The Roman emperors recognized it as a free state, and in the middle ages it was called Stampalia, and belonged to the noble Venetian family of Quirini.
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