In the extreme north-west an elevated region, whose aridity is caused by the " blanketing " influence of the eastern Andean ranges, extends.
Because of this extreme aridity, agriculture in Nevada is dependent on irrigation.
Aridity has favoured the production of spines as a defence from external attack, sharp thorns are frequent, and asperities of various sorts predominate.
In southern Bahia the industry has been nearly extinguished through increasing aridity and droughts, but in the state of Rio de Janeiro the planters are increasing their herds.
On the plains rain rarely falls during the heats of summer; and the showers though violent are generally of short duration, whilst the moisture is quickly evaporated owing to the aridity of the atmosphere.
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