He turned his attention to the encroachments of the Afghans, and in 1781 reconquered the greater part of what had been lost to the south of the Oxus.
In the mountainous districts of Kandahar and Kabul the hardy tribes of Afghans had for centuries led a wild and almost independent life.
He was a clever and energetic man, and had been instructed to take severe measures with the Afghans, some of whom were suspected of intriguing to restore the city to the Delhi emperor.
His brother, Mir Abdallah, succeeded him in the government of the Afghans; but after a few months, Mahmud, a son of Mir Wai~, a very young man, murdered his uncle and assumed the title of a sovereign prince.
The court of Isfahan had no sooner received tidings of this disaster than Mahmud, with a large army of Afghans, invaded A~ Persia in the year f72i, seized Kermn, and in the ln~as~1r following year advanced to within four days march of the city of Isfahan.