country in SC Asia, between Iran and Pakistan: 250,001 sq mi (647,500 sq km); cap. Kabul
A landlocked country of southwest-central Asia. Frequently dominated since ancient times by foreign empires, Afghanistan gained full independence only in 1919. The USSR invaded in 1979 but met fierce resistance from Afghan insurgents and withdrew its troops in 1989. The resulting power vacuum led to the rise of the Taliban, which established strict Islamic rule over most of the country. The Taliban was overthrown by a US-led invasion in 2001 that set up a pro-Western government, although armed resistance continued in many parts of the country. Kabul is the capital and the largest city.x
- KABUL RIVER, a river of Afghanistan, 300 main length.
- Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
- Above the crossing-point of the Russian Trans-Caspian railway at Charjui, the main channel of the Oxus river becomes the northern boundary of Afghanistan, separating that country from Russia, and so continues to its source in Victoria Lake of the Great Pamir.
- Proc. R.G.S., 1879; Dr Bellew, Afghanistan and the Afghans (London, 1879); Nicolas Prjevalski, " Explorations in Asia," see vols.
- With the completion of the surveys of Baluchistan and Makran much light has also been thrown on the ancient connexion between east and west; and the final settlement of the southern galuch- boundaries of Afghanistan has led to the reopening of istan and one at least of the old trade routes between Seistan Makran.