Litharge is much used for the preparation of lead salts, for the manufacture of oil varnishes, of certain cements, and of lead plaster, and for other purposes.
In the arts it is employed in the preparation of varnishes, and as a mordant for the production of colours on calico.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
Oil of turpentine is largely used in the preparation of varnishes and as a medium by painters in their "flat" colours.
In addition to its extensive use in soap-making, rosin is largely employed in making inferior varnishes, sealing-wax and various cements.