Nickel is used for the manufacture of domestic utensils, for crucibles, coinage, plating, and for the preparation of various alloys, such as German silver, nickel steels such as invar (nickel, 35.7%; steel, 64.3%), which has a negligible coefficient of thermal expansion, and constantan (nickel, 45%; copper, 55%), which has a negligible thermal coefficient of its electrical resistance.
In nickel-steels containing about 50 and 70% of nickel the maximum increase of the constants is as much as 7 or 8%.
The fact that this decrease of strength begins shortly after the carboncontent rises above the eutectoid or pearlite ratio of o 90% is natural, because the brittleness of the cementite which, in hypereutectoid steels, forms a more or less continuous skeleton (Alloys, Pl., fig.
Various nickel-steels all expanded under magnetization, the increase being generally considerable and proportional to the field; in the case of an alloy containing 29% of nickel the change was nearly 40 times greater than in soft iron.
Trans., 1885, 176, 455) employed his yoke method to test the magnetic properties of thirty-five samples of iron and steel, among which were steels containing substantial proportions of manganese, silicon, chromium and tungsten.