The criminal offense of intentionally and secretively bringing an item into a country without declaring it to customs officials and paying the associated duties or taxes, or of bringing a prohibited item into a country.
The statute of 1630 forbidding the exportation of wool, followed by the Plague of 1665, led to a serious trade depression, while the former enactment resulted in the vast smuggling trade which spread along the coast, 40,000 packs of wool being smuggled to Calais from Kent and Sussex in two years.
Newport became the centre of an extensive business in piracy, privateering, smuggling, and legitimate trade.
The English retaliated by armed smuggling voyages.
The complete control of the seaboard by European powers has rendered the smuggling of slaves to Arabia and Persia a difficult and dangerous occupation.