Programming-language meaning

A language used to write instructions for the computer. It lets the programmer express data processing in a symbolic manner without regard to machine-specific details.From Source Code to Machine LanguageThe statements written by the programmer are called "source code," which are translated into the computer's "machine language" by programs called "assemblers," "compilers" and "interpreters." For example, when a programmer writes ADD A TO B, ADD is turned into machine code for add, and A and B are the locations in RAM where the two amounts are temporarily stored.Grammar and SyntaxLike human languages, each programming language has its own grammar and syntax, and there can be dialects, each requiring its own assemblers and compilers. Standards have been set by ANSI for many languages. However, it can take a long time for new features to be standardized, and new dialects spring up all the time. See program logic.Assemblers, Compilers and InterpretersFor each CPU hardware platform, there is a low-level assembly language that generates machine language one for one. High-level languages (what most programmers write in) use compilers that generate many machine instructions for each source code statement the programmer writes (see compiler). There are also programming languages that are translated into machine language one statement at a time each time they run (see interpreter).Source Code IF COUNT=10 GOTO END-OF-JOB ELSE GOTO COMPUTE-AGAIN ENDIF Assembly Language Machine Language Compare A to B Compare 3477 2883 If equal go to C If = go to 23732 Go to D Go to 23119 Machine Code 10010101001010001010100 10101010010101001001010 10100101010001010010010Major Programming LanguagesFollowing is a brief summary of noteworthy languages. See also client/server development system.ActionScriptProgramming language for Flash programs. See Flash and ActionScript.AdaComprehensive, Pascal-based language used by the Department of Defense. See Ada.ALGOLInternational language for expressing algorithms. See ALGOL.APLUsed for statistics and mathematical matrices. Requires special keyboard symbols. See APL.BASICDeveloped as a timesharing language in the 1960s. It has been widely used in microcomputer programming in the past, and various dialects of BASIC have been incorporated into many different applications. Microsoft's Visual Basic is widely used. See BASIC and Visual Basic.C/C++Developed in the 1970s at AT&T. Widely used to develop operating systems and commercial applications. Unix was the first OS written in C. C++ (C plus plus) is the object-oriented version of C that is popular because it combines objects with traditional C programming syntax. See C.C#Pronounced "C-sharp." A Microsoft .NET language based on C++ with elements from Visual Basic and Java. See .NET Framework.ClojureA dialect of LISP geared to multithreading. See Clojure.COBOLDeveloped in the 1960s. Widely used for mini and mainframe programming. See COBOL.CoffeeScriptA more readable version of JavaScript. See CoffeeScript.DartWeb-based programming language from Google. Introduced in 2011, Dart was touted to provide greater performance for Web applications than JavaScript but has been used mostly by Google. See Dart.dBASEWidely used in the past for business applications. See dBASE Plus.F#Pronounced "F-sharp." A Microsoft .NET scripting language based on ML. See F#.FORTHDeveloped in the 1960s, FORTH has been used in process control and game applications. See FORTH.FORTRANDeveloped in 1954 by IBM, it was the first major scientific programming language and continues to be widely used. Some commercial applications have been developed in FORTRAN. See FORTRAN.GoObject-oriented language styled after C/C++ from Google. Go was made public in 2012. See Go.GroovyJava-based language that simplifies various functions. See Groovy.HaskellPure functional programming language developed in the 1990s. See Haskell.HTML5With Version 5, HTML became an official programming language because it formalized the use of JavaScript programming. See HTML5 and HTML.JavaThe programming language developed by Sun and repositioned for Web use. It is widely used on the server side, although client applications are also used. See Java.JavaScriptThe de facto scripting language on the Web. JavaScript is embedded into billions of HTML pages, and it was formalized as part of HTML5. See JavaScript.JScriptMicrosoft's version of JavaScript. Used in ASP programs. See JScript.JuliaA programming language designed for financial analysis and other numerical computations. See Julia.LISPDeveloped in 1960. Used for AI applications. Its syntax is very different than other languages. See LISP.LiveCodeCross-platform, interpreted language that generates Mac, Windows, Linux, iOS and Android apps from the same source code. See LiveCode.LogoDeveloped in the 1960s, it was noted for its ease of use and "turtle graphics" drawing functions. See Logo.LuaFast, lightweight scripting language that runs on Windows, Unix/Linux and smartphone platforms. See Lua.MOriginally MUMPS (Massachusetts Utility MultiProgramming System), it includes its own database. It is widely used in medical applications. See M.MLA programming language that spawned OCaml and F#. See ML.Modula-2Enhanced version of Pascal introduced in 1979. See Modula-2.Objective-CA version of C used to program Mac and iOS apps. See Objective-C.OCamlA dialect of the ML language family that is used for industrial strength applications. See OCaml.P4A language for programmable network devices. See P4.PascalOriginally an academic language developed in the 1970s. Borland commercialized it with its Turbo Pascal. See Pascal.PerlA scripting language used on the Web to write CGI scripts. See Perl.PHPWidely used server-side language embedded in Web pages along with HTML. A major Web language. See PHP.PrologDeveloped in France in 1973. Used throughout Europe and Japan for AI applications. See Prolog.PythonA scripting language used for AI applications, system utilities and Internet scripts. Developed in Amsterdam by Guido van Rossum. See Python.REXXRuns on IBM mainframes and OS/2. Used as a general-purpose macro language. See REXX.RustOffers memory-safe features with low-level control. See Rust.ScalaA Java-like language that runs in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). See Scala.SwiftAn Apple language that adds features to Objective-C. See Swift.VBScriptSubset of Visual Basic used on the Web similar to JavaScript. See VBScript.Visual BasicVersion of BASIC for Windows programming from Microsoft that has been widely used. See Visual Basic.Visual FoxProA dBASE language and development system from Microsoft. See Visual FoxPro.Web LanguagesLanguages such as JavaScript, Jscript, Perl and CGI are used to automate Web pages as well as link them to other applications running in servers.Even More Languages!Programmers must use standard names for the instruction verbs (add, compare, etc.), and companies generally use standard names for the data in their databases. However, programmers "make up" names for the functions (subroutines) in their own programs, and they make up dozens of them, essentially creating their own language. But since they dislike documenting their code, the readability of that language is critical.Just Make It Up!Unless naming conventions are enforced or pair programming is used, whereby one person looks over the shoulders of the other, programmers can make up names that make no sense whatsoever. The bane of programmers is having to modify someone else's program that has unclear names and few comments. It often requires tracing the logic one statement at a time.In fact, if programmers use careless naming, they can have a miserable time reading their own code later. See pair programming, programmer, to the recruiter and naming fiascos.
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(programming) Code of reserved words and symbols used in computer programs, which give instructions to the computer on how to accomplish certain computing tasks.
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An artificial language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by a computer.
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An artificial language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by a computer. English and other natural languages are not used as programming languages because they cannot be easily translated into machine language. &diamf3; A compiled language is a language in which the set of instructions (or code ) written by the programmer is converted into machine language by special software called a compiler prior to being executed. C++ and SmallTalk are examples of compiled languages. &diamf3; An interpreted language is a language in which the set of instructions (or code ) written by the programmer is converted into machine language by special software called a compiler prior to being executed. Most scripting and macro languages are interpreted languages.
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Origin of programming-language