The hierarchy of dukes and marquises and counts consisted of foreign soldiers imposed on.
The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
Later it submitted to the marquises of Monferrato, and in the middle of the 14th century passed to the house of Savoy.
It again began to flourish under the marquises of Tuscany, who governed it in the name of the emperor.