Grindal remonstrated, claiming some voice for the Church, and in June 1577 was suspended from his jurisdictional, though not his spiritual, functions for disobedience.
One of the chief distinguishing features of early as opposed to modern town-life is that each town formed a jurisdictional district distinct from the country around.
In the 10th century it became the policy of the German emperors to hand over to the bishops full jurisdictional and administrative powers within their cities.
It was not, however, the fact of their being placed under the bishop that constituted these towns as separate jurisdictional units.
The claims of the imperial government, jurisdictional and other, were acknowledged, only such rights of self-government being admitted as could be shown to be grounded on imperial charters.