Dean was childless but Cynthia was mother to a twenty-year-old college student.
His Irish title descended to his brother William, the general, who died childless in 1814.
In 1777 Edward, the ninth of the Howard dukes, died childless in his ninety-second year.
All other daughters had only a life interest in their dowry, which reverted to their family, if childless, or went to their children if they had any.
Monogamy was the rule, and a childless wife might give her husband a maid (who was no wife) to bear him children, who were reckoned hers.