Quite recently, the camera obscura has come into use with submarine vessels, the periscope being simply a camera obscura under a new name.
The increasing importance of the camera obscura as a photographic instrument makes it desirable to bring together what is known of its early history, which is far more extensive than is usually recognized.
On the strength of similar arrangements of lenses and mirrors the invention of the camera obscura has also been claimed for Leonard Digges, the author of Pantometria (1571), who is said to have constructed a telescope from information given in a book of Bacon's experiments.
The first practical step towards the development of the camera obscura seems to have been made by the famous painter and architect, Leon Battista Alberti, in 1437, contemporaneously with the invention of printing.
The first published account of the simple camera obscura was discovered by Libri in a translation of the Architecture of v.