Berlin, 1891, 203), but no remains exist above ground.
The pupae in most of these pests are found in an earthen cocoon beneath the ground, or in some cases above ground (Lophyrus pini).
In germination the cotyledons come above ground and form the first green leaves of the plant.
During the life of a plant there is a continuous stream of water passing through it which enters by the root-hairs in the soil and after passing along the stem is given off from the 'stomata of the leaves into the open air above ground.
Slate rocks are quarried both above ground and below ground, according as they lie near to or distant from the surface.