Origin of thermodynamicsthermo- + dynamics
An example of thermodynamics is the study of how heat changes between a hot object and a cold object.
- used with a sing. verb Physics that deals with the relationships and conversions between heat and other forms of energy.
- used with a pl. verb Thermodynamic phenomena and processes.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. Four basic laws have been established.
|THE FOUR LAWS|
|First Law||The first law states that the amount of energy added to a system is equal to the sum of its increase in heat energy and the work done on the system. The first law is an example of the principle of conservation of energy.|
|Second Law||The second law states that heat energy cannot be transferred from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher one without the addition of energy. Thus, warm air outside can transfer its energy to a cold room, but transferring energy from a cold room to the warm air outside requires extra energy (as with an air conditioner).|
|Third Law||The third law states that the entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero. Since there can be no physical system with lower entropy, all entropy thus has a positive value by definition.|
|Zeroth Law||The zeroth law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with some third body, then they are also in equilibrium with each other. This law has its name because it was implicitly assumed in the development of the other laws, and is in fact more fundamental than the others, but was only later established as a law itself.|
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- An historical account of the development of thermodynamics is given in the article Heat.
- It was in this paper that the principle of the dissipation of energy, briefly summarized in the second law of thermodynamics, was first stated.
- Rankine was the earliest of the three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J.
- A dissolved in B and B dissolved in A, since both of these solutions emit vapours of the same composition (this follows since the same vapour must be in equilibrium with both solutions, for if it were not so a cyclic system contradicting the second law of thermodynamics would be realizable).
- Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.