Ussher, Napoleon's Last Voyages (London, 1895; new ed., 1906); G.
Soc.'s Recueil de Voyages, &c. (Paris, 1839); W.
He made similar voyages in later years in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the North Sea and Palestine.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.