It still means " doctrine " when the collected decreta of Trent bear on their title-page (1564) reference to an Index dogmatum et reformationis; but here " dogma " is already verging towards the narrower and more precise sense - truth defined by church authority.
Views - for it was a generation whose leaders, in France at any rate, looked with suspicion upon any one who professed to go beyond the bounds which the genius of Cuvier had been unable to overpass, and regarded the notion of upsetting any of the positions maintained by him as verging almost upon profanity.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
It is thus a true letter, but in the grand style, verging on the nature not of an essay but a poem.
Fairly high mountains (in places verging on 4000 ft.) are found between Gafsa and the salt lakes of the J erid.