The south slope rises precipitously from the foothills; the north slope is more gradual, but it is much broken by rugged spurs and deep gorges.
Birdwood's force had taken root since April were spurs of a tangled mountain mass known as Sari Bair, from the topmost ridges of which the Straits about the Narrows were partially visible at a distance of 4 or 5 miles.
The Turkish posts about the lower spurs were in some cases surprised.
In the north-west it includes spurs of the Taunus.
The wooded hills to the northward throw out to the south and south-west long spurs, between which are the low valleys of several rivers and brooks.